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From: Carl von Clausewitz and Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. On Waterloo: Clausewitz, Wellington, and the Campaign of 1815. Ed./trans. Christopher Bassford, Daniel Moran, and Gregory W. Pedlow., 2010. ISBN-10: 1453701508. ISBN-13: 9781453701508. 318pp. List price: $18.00.


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[1] This introduction derives substantially from Chapter 3, "Clausewitz in Great Britain before 1873," in Christopher Bassford, Clausewitz in English: The Reception of Clausewitz in Britain and America, 1815-1945 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), 37-50.


[2] Wellington to Sir John Sinclair, 13 April 1816, Supplementary Despatches, Correspondence, and Memoranda of Field Marshal Arthur Duke of Wellington, edited by his son, the Duke of Wellington (London: John Murray, 1863), 10:507.


[3] This line appears in a letter of 8 August 1815 from Wellington to an unidentified respondent. The Dispatches of Field-Marshal The Duke of Wellington During his Campaigns in India, Denmark, Portugal, Spain, The Low Countries, and France, And Relating to America, from 1799 to 1815, selected and arranged by Walter Wood (New York: E.P. Dutton & Co,, 1902), 461.


[4] "Memorandum on the Battle of Waterloo," 24 September 1842. Supplementary Despatches, 10:530.


[5] Francis Egerton wrote that "The Duke had made it a rule never to read any work whatever bearing on his military career, He said that they would merely tempt and provoke him to comments which he could not make without offense to living men.... He did, however, although very rarely, make an exception to this rule, as when he wrote his famous memorandum in reply to Clausewitz's 'History of the Campaign.'" Personal Reminiscences of the Duke of Wellington by Francis, the First Earl of Ellesmere, edited by his daughter Alice, Countess of Strafford (London: John Murray, 1904), 82.


[6] Unsigned, "Marmont, Siborne, and Alison," Quarterly Review, v.LXXVI (June and September 1845), 204-247. This article was apparently a joint venture of Gurwood, Egerton, and Wellington himself. See archives of the John Murray Company, manuscript index to v.LXXVI, Quarterly Review; J.H. Stocqueler, The Life of Field Marshal the Duke of Wellington (London: Ingram, Cooke, and Company, 1853), 2:330. Egerton's vociferous attacks on Alison, concerning his discussion of Waterloo, were made with the Duke's "approbation and assistance." Egerton, Reminiscences, 58.


[7] In the debate in question, Jomini differed with Napoleon's criticism of Wellington's decision to fight where he did. See Baron de Jomini, trans. Capt. G.H. Mendell and Lieut. W.P. Craighill [USA], The Art of War (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott, 1862; reprinted, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1971), 183.


[8] On Scharnhorst's ideas and influence, see Charles Edward White, The Enlightened Soldier: Scharnhorst and the Military Gesellschaft in Berlin, 1801-1805 (New York: Praeger, 1989).


[9] Clausewitz's experience at Wavre is analyzed in Peter Paret, Clausewitz and the State: The Man, His Theories, and His Times (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976), 247-250; Roger Parkinson, Clausewitz: A Biography (New York: Stein and Day, 1971), chapters 13 and 14; Raymond Aron, trans. Christine Booker and Norman Stone, Clausewitz: Philosopher of War (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1985), 30-31. Paret's book is by far the best treatment of Clausewitz's life and intellectual evolution available in English.


[10] Paret, Clausewitz and the State, 428.


[11] This is the opinion of Paret, Werner Hahlweg (Clausewitz's modern German editor), Eberhard Kessel, and Daniel Moran. See Moran’s essay in the present work; Paret, Clausewitz and the State, 340; Carl von Clausewitz, Schriften—Aufsätze—Studien—Briefe, ed. Werner Hahlweg (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1990), 2:924-935.


[12] Hahlweg, 937.


[13] Carl von Clausewitz, Der Feldzug von 1815 in Frankreich (Berlin: Ferdinand Dümmlers, 1835).


[14] This term originated with J.F.C. Fuller.


[15] Liverpool to Wellington, 10 September 1840, Papers of the first Duke of Wellington, University of Southampton (WP2/71/28).


[16] Wellington to Liverpool, 14 September 1840, Papers of the Third Earl of Liverpool (Add MSS 38196, f 143), The British Library.

[17] Wellington Papers 8/1 contains Liverpool's translation of Clausewitz's Campaign of 1815, together with correspondence and memoranda about it dating from 1842.


[18] [Egerton], "Life of Blücher," The Quarterly Review, v.LXX, no.CXL (June & September 1842), 462.


[19] Carl von Clausewitz, The Campaign of 1812 in Russia [trans. Francis Egerton] (London: J. Murray, 1843; reprinted, Hattiesburg, MS: Academic International, 1970; reprinted Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1977; reprinted, London: Greenhill Books, 1992).


[20] Ellesmere, Reminiscences, 238-9.


[21] See Bassford, Clausewitz in English, 122-143.


[22] Brigadier Peter Young, ed., Great Battles of the World on Land, Sea, and Air (New York: Bison Books, 1978), 9.


[23] For example, it was discussed in G.R. Gleig's The Life of Arthur Duke of Wellington (London: Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer, 1865), 382. Lieut.-Colonel Charles C. Chesney, R.E., Waterloo Lectures: A Study of the Campaign of 1815 (London: Longmans, Green, and Company, 1868) was extremely popular and influential. Chesney was an avid reader of Clausewitz's work and often accepted Clausewitz's analysis over Wellington's. E.L.S. Horsburgh, Waterloo: A Narrative and a Criticism (London: Methuen, 1895), appears to draw on both the Duke's response and Clausewitz's study; also, Horsburgh's general approach seems to have been influenced by the discussion of "critical analysis" in On War.


[24] Egerton to Arbuthnot, 5 September 1842. WP 2//148. This letter is included in section IV of the present work.


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